/azraq refugees camp waste masterplan

Short-term masterplan for the Azraq Refugee Camp. In this framework the business structure and the scenarios for an alternative WM system were modelled based on a simplified version of the ISWM framework. The exercise included a baseline validation process, definition of principles and constraints, strategic definition, and the development of scenarios together with a sustainability analysis of them. After the definition of the strategy, the scenarios were divided into two main models: the improved status quo, with the identification of improvement/optimisation of the current SWM operations, and future scenarios. Several ideas are presented which would improve SWM conditions and lower the cost of Syrian refugee services in Azraq Refugee Camp.

The plan identified the following main principles:

  1. Work with what is already working: do not change things that are functioning well
  2. No waste to be disposed on the ground: use containers, bins, and also model street sweeping
  3. Labour force prevails over using machines
  4. No waste streams will go to final disposal without crossing a sorting line of being separated at source
  5. The plan covers all types of solid waste produced inside the Azraq RC (HHs and commercial).
  6. The term of the plan is 4 years: from 2018 to 2022
  7. The plan considers that all new systems are tested and piloted before being fully implemented
  8. The plan is under humanitarian aid and amortisation or depreciation will be calculated but not consideredin the CAPEX.
  9. The context is defined as post-emergency. Other than the public health driver, the following drivers are alsoapplicable:
    • –  environmental protection of the refugees and the host community should be taken intoconsideration
    • –  waste hierarchy should be respected and planned
    • –  user inclusivity should be implementedThe plan framing identified three types of waste streams in the camp:
  • –  residual waste: organic and non-organic waste remaining after separate collection or sorting at the GC
  • –  dry recyclable waste: packaging and other plastic and metal
  • –  organic waste: mainly kitchen wasteThe plan identified special conditions related to the camp that can be opportunities or constraints:
  • –  the RC is a closed environment and is in a remote area with no extension of the collection to other users
  • –  the RC HH number can vary according to the political situation and population growth cannot be used. There is no trend and the plan presented models the system for a maximum increment of population to fill allshelters present in the camp.
  • –  waste streams are only HH and commercial waste, no special hazardous waste
  • –  users do not pay for the service as they are refugees. The service chain should be paid by the internationalcommunity or by the host government.
    The plan defined one general objective: 
    contribute to reducing the costs for Syrian refugee services. There are also two specific objectives:
  1. 1-  improve the service chain in SWM in Azraq Camp, thus reducing the costs and increasing the efficiency of the system and working conditions, and
  2. 2-  improve the value chain of the SWM in Azraq RC to increase sustainability and reduce the environmental impact on the host community.

The analysis of the status quo showed that there is a service chain that works with inappropriate conditions. The improvement was modelled with the conditions of no change to vehicles and the collection system. The planning team modelled an increase of the sanitation workers to improve the working conditions. In parallel, the consultants worked on the sustainability of the Green Centre for sorting and recycling. The GC now is able to sort around 50% of  the collected waste and remove out of it 6% of recyclable waste from the total waste collected (12% of sorted waste). The workers sort from the ground with very low efficiency and in dangerous working conditions.

The improvement is modelled with additional equipment: one conveyor belt for manual sorting, a plastic shredder and an increase of outdoor storage. Financially the GC loses around 97,000 US$ per year. The model assumes that by introducing the new equipment the staff will be able to sort 100% of waste, removing 15% of recyclables, and that the number of workers can be reduced from 16 to 12. With the above assumption the GC could become barely sustainable with around 3,800 US$ per year of revenue which represents approximately 4% of profit (risk).

With that low profit the GC cannot attract any private sector investment or participation, but would at least be sustainable, and reduce the quantity of waste disposed in the controlled dumpsite by 15%.

The GC has been modelled also as collecting bread from the camp, taking over the system done by a local NGO previously supported by the INGO Acted (their project finished in April 2018). Considering the data supplied by a local NGO and Acted, bread collection could increase the sustainability of the GC up to 8%, ensuring a safe margin of risk but still being unsuitable for private companies.

The second model has been done for the service chain with a complete change in the system and with the introduction of source sorting collection of organic waste from HHs.

The model foresees a residual waste reduction alternate collection every 2 days, one day half of the camp and the other day the second half. New plastic 360 L bins are included. The plan calls for the introduction of Electric Ultralight Carts (EUC) that can collect 1,7 mper load and that can be driven by IBVs. The plan models the collection with 12 EUC and 24 workers. The plan introduces the source separation of the organic material using the same EUC.

The SWM system modelled a new composting facility next and as part of the GC.

The service chain new system resulted in a reduction of costs of around 11% including the costs for the organic collection. The GC with the introduction of the composting plant can reach a 10% profit without bread collection. The composting plant has a minimal profit itself and the planning team suggests to evaluate the possibility to increase the quantities using agricultural waste from the nearby agricultural area of Azraq city.

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